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About the CFA Program

The CFA designation is one of the most distinguished professional designations in the world. Achievement of the designation requires a candidate to pass three 6-hour exams progressively and to accumulate four years of eligable work experience. The exam curriculum includes a broad range of topics relevant to today’s finance sector. After you complete the requirements to earn the designation, the CFA Institute will award you a CFA charter and you will be considered a CFA charterholder…

10 things to do during final CFA exam month.

Final month is the most crucial. During this month, managing yourself, your psychology is more important than preparing for the exam. Anxiety is at it\’s peak and most candidates, despite knowing the entire material,...

Valuing Bonds with Embedded Options

In this article, we will concentrate on callable bonds and putable bonds, although we’ll mention prepayable and convertible bonds as well.

The common method of valuing a callable or putable bond is to use a binomial interest rate tree. For the examples that follow, we’ll use the binomial tree we created here; it has 10% interest rate volatility:

Binomial Pricing Trees (for Options)

In this article, we’ll be concerned with the application of binomial trees to the valuation of call and put options (on, for example, stocks or commodities).

Present Value of Growth Opportunities (PVGO)

Most companies don’t remain the same size (i.e., have the same amount of earnings, net income) forever; with a soupçon of luck, a company’s earnings will grow, year after year. The value of a company’s opportunities to grow in the future is known, with no great originality, as the present value of growth opportunities (PVGO). Given the right information, calculating PVGO is trivial: it’s the difference between the (present) value of the company as is (i.e., including those growth opportunities) and the (present) value of the company assuming zero growth: